HELPPP PLEASE I’LL GIVE A LOT OF POINTSa) Explain how animals with radial symmetry differ from animals with bilateral symmetry.

b) Give an example of an animal with radial symmetry and an example of an animal with bilateral symmetry.


Answer 1
Answer: A) Any plane via the central axis can be used to divide radially symmetrical creatures into symmetrical halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry can only be divided into equal halves along a single particular plane that passes through a central axis.

B) radial: starfish bilateral: dogs

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Aniridia is a human condition in which the eye has no iris. The protein encoded by the gene responsible for aniridia is very nearly identical to the protein product of the fly Eyeless protein. What experiment could provide evidence that the two genes are functionally equivalent?
What would likely happen first to the carbon in the deer carcass as it lies on the forest floor after the mountain lion has finished feeding on it? a. It would be incorporated into other organisms. b. It would be released back into the atmosphere. c. It would be turned into coal. d. It would be incorporated into the soil.
Sex linked - Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome, most commonly X, and are also most commonly recessive. Hemophilia true or false

Study the graph below. At what depth does the thermocline begin? A line graph relating ocean depth to water temperature. At 0 meters, temperature is approximately 27°C. At 100 meters, temperature is approximately 24°C. At 200 meters, temperature is approximately 11°C. At 300 meters, temperature is approximately 8°C.


The thermocline begins at 100 meters.

The thermocline in an aquatic ecosystem presents a layer of water which has a steep decline in temperature. In this layer, the temperature of the water drops much faster than in the layers above. This happens because this layer is a ''buffer'' zone between the warm water of the surface layers and the cold layers of the deep.
So, in this case, in the zone between 100 and 200  meters, there is a sharp decline from 24 degrees to 11 degrees.




Which two regions of the brain control respirationa. Hypothalamus
b. Pons
c. Medulla oblongata
d. A and b
e. B and c


The medulla oblongata and the pons are involved in the regulation of the ventilatory pattern of respiration. So the answer is E.

Compare and contrast aspergillosis and mucormycosis.



Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis are caused by two different fungi groups.


Aspergillus causes Aspergillosis. Aspergillus is a kind of mold or fungus which is found in both inside and outside environment and it may not always cause the disease if inhaled.

Mucormycosis is caused by Mucormycetes. Mucormycetes are group of fungi that are specifically found in soil and other decaying organic matter like leave, animal dung etc. They are more common in soil as compared to air. People with weak immunity system usually are affected by this fungi else these fungi's are not very harmful. They cause an infection in lungs/sinuses when inhaled

The plasma membrane is selectively permeable. It allows some substances to enter and leave the cell unrestricted while others are restricted. Some toxins produced by certain bacteria cross the plasma membrane, interfering with normal chemical reactions, and ultimately killing the affected cell. Why are cells unable to stop the flood of these harmful substances into the cell


The cells are not able to stop the flow of the mentioned harmful substances into the cell as they fail to recognize them as foreign entities. These foreign toxins have intracellular targets with which they bind and lead to death of the cell.

Cell death due to foreign toxins:

The plasma membrane is formed of lipids. The toxins produced by the bacterial cells are water soluble. Therefore, they identify particular receptors on the membrane and associate with them. Thus, cell at certain occasions fail to identify them as foreign entities.

They combine with the plasma membrane of the cell and induce pore formation, however, there are many toxins that invade the cell and possess intracellular targets via endocytic vesicles. With the help of these vesicles, they deliver their enzymatic domain into the cytosol and results in the death of the cell by obstructing the metabolism of the cell.

Thus, cells fail to identify the bacterial toxins as foreign entities and they invade the cell and results in cell death.

Find out more information about invasion of foreign toxins here:


There are specific receptors present on the surface of the normal cell membrane to recognize the molecules to allow them to pass or not. Most of the bacterial toxin are water-soluble molecules, and bound to the cell surface and interact with them as some time antibody-antigen interaction or cell recognition does not occur that form a pore in the cell membrane and toxins move into the cell.

Once toxins enter the cell they attack intracellular targets through endocytic vesicles. Ultimately these ends in cell death.

Proteins....A have a primary structure made from a string of anticodons.
B. have a primary structure made from a string of codons.
C. have a primary structure made of a string of amino acids.
D. have a primary structure made from a string of genes.


Proteins have a primary structure made of a string of amino acids, hence option C is correct.

The primary structure of the protein is made of linear chain of the amino acids. A gene is the segment of DNA that stores the information to express a particular amino acid through the process of translation.

In the process of translation, the sequence of amino acids are joined together to form a primary structure of protein, after that it change into confirmation and form secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures.

Thus, proteins have a primary structure made of a string of amino acids, hence option C is correct.

Learn more about proteins, here:


Answer is D: Have a primary structure made from a string of genes

Major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the A) medulla oblongata.
B) pons.
C) midbrain.
D) diencephalons.
E) cerebellum.



Medulla oblongata. (Ans. A)


Medulla oblongata is present in the brain, in front of the cerebellum. It controls the number of functions in the body. It helps to transfer messages to the thalamus & spinal cord, from the body.

Medulla oblongata helps to regulate breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, sneezing, and digestive activities. Medulla oblongata part of the brain is a center for respiration & circulation. Sensory & nerve cells from the midbrain & forebrain travel through the medulla. It receives its blood supply from many arteries (including anterior spinal, posterior inferior cerebellar and the vertebral artery's)  

Final answer:

The medulla oblongata in the brain controls crucial autonomic functions like breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion.


The major centers concerned with autonomic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestive activities are located in the medulla oblongata (option A). The medulla oblongata is an important part of our brainstem, located just above the spinal cord. It is crucial as it controls various autonomic functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.

Learn more about medulla oblongata here: