What are some of the common security weaknesses inherent in Unix or Linux based systems and what techniques can be used to harden these systems against an attack?

Answers

Answer 1
Answer:

Answer:

The answer is below

Explanation:

1.  Lack of password enforcement

2.  Outdated third party applications: this includes outdated software such as Apache, PHP, MySQL, OpenSSL, and VNC

3.  General lack of patch management for the OS

4.  General lack of system hardening:

5.  Lack of backups

Ways to hardened the Linux/Unix based computer system is do the following:

1.  Perform minimal Installation: this involves, installing softwares that are necessary, and limiting the number of admin users on the computer system.

2.  Carry out Code Auditing: this is a means of preventing security issues, by withing more secure softwares to prevent variable declarations, or otherwise unexpected logic.

3.  Ensure there is a Traffic filter firewall: this will helps to attacks from external users or hackers. Install, Web Applicatio firewall, which helps to filter out traffic.

4.  Carry out Softwares updates: a software update can help prevent or guide against security leaks in a software

5.  Install security updates only: this is done by filtering out the security-related programs and only upgrade packages which are referred to in the custom file.


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Assistive Technologies: You have just purchased a new computer and, because of a visual impairment, you are having trouble reading the information on the screen. What are your next steps

Answers

Answer:

The definition has been mentioned below and according to the situation described.

Explanation:

  • If you already have recently purchased a new device and also have a visual disability condition, you increasing considering utilizing a few available assistive resources, such as screen readers, magnifiers, huge-print keyboards, as well as applications and resources for navigating assistance.  
  • These resources are explicitly available for those instances often come pre-installed in a device window throughout today's context.

My friend Leo wants to have an emergency plan for his final exams on University of Southern Algorithmville. He has N subjects to prepare for, and for each subject, his score is determined only by the time he spend on learning. It's not surprising that Leo found out he actually spent zero time on preparing before. At least he knows when he can start learning all of these subjects. For each subject i, there is a start time, si when he can get all materials ready to start learning. And there is also a ending time ei for each subject, when his learning materials expire and he can't learn anymore. We know that si and ei are integers, and Leo can only dedicate to a single subject within each time phase. Universtiy of Southern Algorithmville (USA), a student's total grade is the minimum grade among all subjects. Leo wants you to help him find out the best outcome. Given N subjects and their time intervals (si; ei ), design an algorithm to find out the maximum time possible for the least prepared subject. Prove the correctness of your algorithm. (Hint: It's not enough to use the network ow algorithm alone to determine the answer.)

Answers

Answer:

Greedy is an algorithmic paradigm that builds up a solution piece by piece, always choosing the next piece that offers the most obvious and immediate benefit. Greedy algorithms are used for optimization problems. An optimization problem can be solved using Greedy if the problem has the following property: At every step, we can make a choice that looks best at the moment, and we get the optimal solution of the complete problem.

If a Greedy Algorithm can solve a problem, then it generally becomes the best method to solve that problem as the Greedy algorithms are in general more efficient than other techniques like Dynamic Programming. But Greedy algorithms cannot always be applied. For example, the Fractional Knapsack problem (See this) can be solved using Greedy, but 0-1 Knapsack cannot be solved using Greedy.

The following are some standard algorithms that are Greedy algorithms.

1) Kruskal’s Minimum Spanning Tree (MST): In Kruskal’s algorithm, we create an MST by picking edges one by one. The Greedy Choice is to pick the smallest weight edge that doesn’t cause a cycle in the MST constructed so far.

2) Prim’s Minimum Spanning Tree: In Prim’s algorithm also, we create an MST by picking edges one by one. We maintain two sets: a set of the vertices already included in MST and the set of the vertices not yet included. The Greedy Choice is to pick the smallest weight edge that connects the two sets.

3) Dijkstra’s Shortest Path: Dijkstra’s algorithm is very similar to Prim’s algorithm. The shortest-path tree is built up, edge by edge. We maintain two sets: a set of the vertices already included in the tree and the set of the vertices not yet included. The Greedy Choice is to pick the edge that connects the two sets and is on the smallest weight path from source to the set that contains not yet included vertices.

4) Huffman Coding: Huffman Coding is a loss-less compression technique. It assigns variable-length bit codes to different characters. The Greedy Choice is to assign the least bit length code to the most frequent character. The greedy algorithms are sometimes also used to get an approximation for Hard optimization problems. For example, the Traveling Salesman Problem is an NP-Hard problem. A Greedy choice for this problem is to pick the nearest unvisited city from the current city at every step. These solutions don’t always produce the best optimal solution but can be used to get an approximately optimal solution.

A common measure of transmission for digital data is the number of bits transmitted per second. Generally, transmission is accomplished in packets consisting of a start bit, a byte (8 bits) of information, and a stop bit. Using these facts, answer the following:a. Compute the time required to transmit an image of 1200x800 pixels with 8 bits for gray of each pixel using a 50 M bits/sec. modem?

b.What would the time be at 3 M bits/sec, a representative of download speed of a DSL connection?

(c) Repeat a and b when the image is RGB colored with 8 bits for each primary color. f 20 colored frames per second

Answers

Answer:  a) 0,19 seg. b) 3,2 seg. c) 11,5 seg.  d) 192 seg.

Explanation:

a)  For each pixel in the image, we use 8 bits + 1 start bit + 1 stop bit= 10 bits.

  • Number of Pixels: 800*1200= 960,000.
  • Bits transmitted: 960,000 x 10 = 9.6 * 10⁶ bits = 9.6 Mbits
  • if  the modem is able to transmit up to 50 Mbits in a second, we can calculate how much time it will be needed to transmit 9.6 Mbits, using this equality:

  • 50 Mbit = 1 sec
  • 9.6 Mbit = x  ⇒  t= 9.6 / 50 = 0.19 sec

b)  If the modem speed changes to 3 Mb/s, all we need to do is just use the same equality, as follows:

  • 3 Mbit = 1 sec
  • 9.6 Mbit = x  ⇒  t= 9.6 / 3 = 3.2 sec

c) Now, if we need to transmit a colored image , at a rate of 20 f/sec, we need to calculate first how many bits we need to transmit, as follows:

  • 1 Frame= 800*1200* (24 bits + 3 start bits + 3 stop bits)=  28.8  Mbits
  • 1 Second= 20 frames/ sec = 28.8 Mbits *20 = 576 Mbits.
  • If the modem speed is 50 Mb/s, we can use the same formula that we used for a) and b), as follows:
  • 50 Mbit = 1 sec
  • 576 Mbits = x  ⇒  t= 576 / 50 = 11.5 sec

d) Same as c) replacing 50 Mb/s by 3 Mb/s, as follows:

  • 3 Mbit = 1 sec
  • 576 Mbits = x  ⇒  t= 576 / 3 = 192 sec

The time that's required to transmit an image of 1200x800 pixels with 8 bits for gray is 151.6 million seconds.

How to calculate the time taken?

The time required to transmit an image of 1200x800 pixels with 8 bits for gray will be:

= (1200 × 800 × 8) / 50

= 151.6 million seconds.

The time needed to be at 3 M bits/sec, a representative of download speed of a DSL connection will be:

= 7.68/3

= 2.56 seconds.

Learn more about time on:

brainly.com/question/4931057

When you move or size a control in the Form Designer, Visual Studio automatically adjusts the ________________ that specify the location and size of the control.

Answers

Answer:

When you move or size a control in the Form Designer, Visual Studio automatically adjusts the properties that specify the location and size of the control.

why is the disk method a special case of the general slicing​ method? choose the correct answer below. a. the cross sections of the slices are disks with holes through them. b. the functions that generate the solids are all lines. c. the functions that generate the solids are all parabolas. d. the cross sections of the slices are disks.

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Answer: d)The cross sections of the slices are disks.

Explanation:The slicing method deals with the elimination of the horizontal layer of the solid body .It is considered that disk method is the special case of the slicing method.

Disk method consist of the slices that are used for the estimated volume of the solid body of revolution that are known as disk.The solid body revolving around a line and its volume is estimated.Thus, the correct option is option (d).

What is the best for cleaning up scattered laser toner particles?a. Use a hair dryer to blow away the residue

b. Use moist paper towels to wipe up particles

c. Use your shirt sleeve to make them disappear

d. Use a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter while wearing your PPE

Answers

Answer: D) Use a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter while wearing your PPE

Explanation:

 Laser tone particle takes approximately 15 minutes for settle down as it is  finely grounded particle. To avoid the inhaling of laser tone particles try to keep the air stable and leave the printer sometime after cleaning its area.

HEPA filter is the high efficiency filter which basically particulate air and improve the quality of air. It made up of variety of materials like glass filters, vegetable fiber etc.

The main application of HEPA filter that it is using as vacuum cleaner equipment and must wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while using this types of equipment.